Working groups

 Working groups bring together QCBS members and partner researchers with complementary areas of expertise, facilitating innovative and collaborative research projects within research axes as well as across axes. Working groups also provide research and training opportunities for students.

 

FUNDED PROJECTS

 

Working Group 28 : Scaling biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in time and space sCale
Andrew Gonzalez (McGill University), Dominique Gravel (Université de Sherbrooke),
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Human society greatly influences and depends on biological diversity. Yet, all data suggest that we are changing biodiversity at unprecedented rate, and altering the structure and functioning of ecological communities. The impacts of people on biodiversity and the response of ecosystems to biodiversity change have been studied at different scales of space and time. This working group will synthesize knowledge and develop a framework to understand how biodiversity change affects ecosystem functioning now and into the future and from local to global scales.Les sociétés humaines ont un impact et dépendent de la diversité biologique. Pourtant, toutes les données suggèrent que nous modifions la biodiversité à un taux sans précédent et que nous modifions la structure ainsi que le fonctionnement des communautés écologiques. Les impacts des humains sur la biodiversité et la réponse des écosystèmes aux changements de la biodiversité ont été étudiés à différentes échelles d'espace et de temps. Ce groupe de travail synthétisera les connaissances et développera un cadre pour comprendre comment le changement dans la biodiversité a un impact sur le fonctionnement des écosystèmes, actuellement et dans l'avenir, à des échelles locales et globales.
Working Group 27 : Comment contribuer à un développement durable sans perte nette de milieux humides et optimiser la planification de la conservation et la restauration/création de milieux humides, notamment en regard des changements climatiques.
Jérôme Dupras (Université du Québec en Outaouais), Sophie Lavallée (Université Laval), Stéphanie Pellerin (Université de Montréal), Monique Poulin (Université Laval),
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Le gouvernement a déposé récemment le projet de loi 132 concernant la gestion des milieux humides au Québec. Ce nouvel outil législatif impliquera que les promoteurs désireux d’effectuer des travaux en milieux humides respectent la séquence d’atténuation des impacts pour ces milieux. Cette séquence vise d’abord 1) à éviter les perturbations en milieux humides, et si ce n’est pas possible, 2) à en minimiser les impacts, et 3) à compenser les pertes de milieux humides par de la restauration ou création de milieux humides. Notre groupe de travail s’intéresse à l’écologie des milieux humides au Québec et à l’amélioration des approches de conservation et de gestion de ces milieux, notamment aux approches de compensation. Nous avons bénéficié d’une première année de financement qui nous a permis d’élaborer et d’obtenir une subvention du CRSH de 252 853$ qui nous permettra d’identifier les outils législatifs favorisant l’atteinte de l’objectif d’aucune perte nette de milieux humides. Au terme de cette première année, notre groupe de travail a également produit un mémoire (60 pages) visant l’amélioration du projet de loi 132, mémoire qui a été présenté en commission parlementaire le 16 mai dernier. Nous visons ici un renouvellement du groupe de travail pour deux ans. Notre objectif est de poursuivre les discussions quant à la gestion des milieux humides afin de maintenir notre rôle de veille scientifique en regard du développement des outils législatifs en cours au gouvernement. Nous voulons également développer des méthodes pour la planification de la conservation et de la restauration/création de milieux humides, notamment dans un contexte de changements climatiques, afin d’optimiser l’apport en services écologiques régionalement.
Working Group 26 : Using Species’ Thermal Physiological Limits To Predict Future Biodiversity Changes
Piero Calosi (Université du Québec à Rimouski), Dominique Gravel (Université de Sherbrooke), Joanne Bennett (sDiv Leipzig), Ignacio Castilla-Morales (Harvard University ), Jennifer Sunday (University of British Columbia),
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The rate and magnitude at which global change is occurring poses a serious threat to species persistence. However, climate driven extinctions could disproportionately affect some clades (i.e. families, genera), and given that many functional traits are similarly phylogenically structured this could result in the disproportionate loss of some ecosystem functions and services. However, species (and potential functional groups) possess different levels of phenotypic variation, phenotypic plasticity and potential for adaptation, which will likely mediate their responses to climate change. Using these elements should sensibly improve our ability to predict which clades and functional groups are going to be more sensitive to climate-driven extinctions. As a consequence the aim of this working group is to be able to integrate methods currently used to estimate phenotypic plasticity and variation of species’ traits to methods that are currently used to predict species sensitivity to extinction under climate change, and identify and a more refine manner which taxonomic and functional groups will be able to survive under global climate change scenarios. Finally, as many of the taxa in the dataset we propose to use are commercially important in the Québec region (including trout, salmon, waterfowl, oak, maple and pines), whilst this working group will be primarily focus on the sensitivity to extinction across the tree of life (i.e. Biodiversity), will also be able to identify the sensitivity to extinction for important social and economic resources including game, fish stocks and timber that are likely to requiring priority management and monitoring to maintain in the future. The intended workshop is career level, gender and discipline balanced. The workshop will result in (1) the expansion of an existing thermal limits dataset (GlobTherm) with the addition of phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic variation information, as well as information on functional groups, (2) the integration of methods currently used to estimate phenotypic plasticity and variation of species’ traits to methods that are currently used to predict species sensitivity to extinction under climate change, and (3) the preparation to 1-2 manuscripts (lead by the postdocs and the graduate students) for submission in Nature Ecology and Evolution and Nature Climate Change.
Working Group 25 : Améliorer les processus de diffusion et de visualisation des données sur la biodiversité
Dominique Gravel (Université de Sherbrooke), Anouk Simard (Université Laval), Timothée Poisot (Université de Montréal), Pierre Legagneux (UQAR), Steve Visseault (Université de Sherbrooke), Guillaume Blanchet (Université de Sherbrooke), Sabrina Courant (MDDELCC), Henri Assogba (Université Laval), Catherine Simard (Université du Québec à Rimouski), Frédéric Lepinay (Université Laval),
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Compte tenu de l’ampleur des conséquences attendues en réponse à la dégradation des écosystèmes naturels il devient essentiel que les acteurs en conservation de la biodiversité soient proactifs et interpellent la société afin d’augmenter le niveau de littératie environnementale quant à l’importance de la biodiversité. Un moyen de sensibiliser les sociétés à l'importance de la biodiversité réside dans la diffusion de résultats qui seraient issus d’un système de suivis coordonnés. (i) le Suivi de la biodiversité du Québec (Suivi-BdQc) et (ii) l’Observatoire Québécois des écosystèmes (OQE). Dans cette optique, deux initiatives complémentaires sont présentement en développement afin d’améliorer notre connaissance de la biodiversité au Québec; (i) le Suivi de la biodiversité du Québec et (ii) l’Observatoire Québécois des écosystèmes. Le Suivi-BdQc est amorcé par le ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs –MFFP- et le ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques –MDDELCC- dans le cadre du Plan d’action sur les changements climatiques 2013-2020 alors que L’OQE est une initiative mise en place par différents regroupements stratégiques universitaires en partenariat avec les organismes gouvernementaux. Ces deux projets disposent d’un objectif commun: ils souhaitent tous deux développer des interactions avec différents groupes de la société civile et politique pour mieux transmettre des connaissances liées à l’écologie des écosystèmes québécois et engendrer un processus d’action-réaction. Pour atteindre cet objectif , il est proposé de développer un groupe de travail au sein du Centre de la Science de la Biodiversité du Québec faisant interagir des écologistes et des spécialistes en éducation, en communication de l’information et en design graphique. Une approche collaborative impliquant différentes disciplines permettra de créer de nouvelles façons de partager la passion qui unit de nombreux acteurs à travailler à la conservation de la biodiversité.
Working Group 24 : Comment contribuer à un développement durable sans perte nette de milieux humides et optimiser la planification de la conservation et la restauration/création de milieux humides, notamment en regard des changements climatiques.
Jérôme Dupras (Université du Québec en Outaouais), Monique Poulin (Université Laval), Stéphanie Pellerin (Université de Montréal), Sophie Lavallée (Université Laval),
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Le gouvernement a déposé récemment le projet de loi 132 concernant la gestion des milieux humides au Québec. Ce nouvel outil législatif impliquera que les promoteurs désireux d’effectuer des travaux en milieux humides respectent la séquence d’atténuation des impacts pour ces milieux. Cette séquence vise d’abord 1) à éviter les perturbations en milieux humides, et si ce n’est pas possible, 2) à en minimiser les impacts, et 3) à compenser les pertes de milieux humides par de la restauration ou création de milieux humides. Notre groupe de travail s’intéresse à l’écologie des milieux humides au Québec et à l’amélioration des approches de conservation et de gestion de ces milieux, notamment aux approches de compensation. Nous avons bénéficié d’une première année de financement qui nous a permis d’élaborer et d’obtenir une subvention du CRSH de 252 853$ qui nous permettra d’identifier les outils législatifs favorisant l’atteinte de l’objectif d’aucune perte nette de milieux humides. Au terme de cette première année, notre groupe de travail a également produit un mémoire (60 pages) visant l’amélioration du projet de loi 132, mémoire qui a été présenté en commission parlementaire le 16 mai dernier. Nous visons ici un renouvellement du groupe de travail pour deux ans. Notre objectif est de poursuivre les discussions quant à la gestion des milieux humides afin de maintenir notre rôle de veille scientifique en regard du développement des outils législatifs en cours au gouvernement. Nous voulons également développer des méthodes pour la planification de la conservation et de la restauration/création de milieux humides, notamment dans un contexte de changements climatiques, afin d’optimiser l’apport en services écologiques régionalement.
Working Group 23 : One Model: Co-developing an integrated global platform to forecast and manage biodiversity and ecosystem services under climate change
Andrew Gonzalez (McGill University), Timothée Poisot (Université de Montréal), Pedro Peres-Neto (Concordia University), Patrick M.A. James (Université de Montréal), Andrew Hendry (McGill University), Dominique Gravel (Université de Sherbrooke), Luc De Meester (KU Leuven, Belgium), Cécile Albert (McGill University),
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As global climate change accelerates, we urgently need to develop accurate predictions about biological responses to guide effective mitigation strategies for protecting biodiversity and ecosystem services. Most predictive models, however, are correlative and exclude important biological mechanisms such as demography, dispersal, evolution, and species interactions that have proven important in mediating past and present responses to climate change. The lack of biological realism in current predictive models calls into question our ability to implement effective solutions to mitigate biodiversity loss and its associated impacts. To address this 21st century challenge, biologists are developing tools that incorporate the key biological processes needed to improve predictive accuracy. Although several such models exist, they have largely developed in isolation and focus on a subset of key processes. We need one model that synthesizes important mechanistic submodels, is flexible enough to be applied to a range of systems and questions, and can integrate feedbacks with climate and land use models. We seek to co-develop One Model, a hub to integrate biological, climate, land use, and ecosystem service models in one comprehensive, adaptable, and readily useable platform. Consequently, One Model would allow governments and non-profits to assess effective conservation strategies to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services. Although we focus on climate change, the platform would be adaptable to any environmental change. We would develop the platform with applied end users in mind. First, we would assemble implementation partners to co-design and develop common objectives and principles. Second, we would integrate mechanistic submodels into one flexible and modular biodiversity model. Third, we would bring key developers of ecosystem, land use, and climate models together with biological modelers to co-formulate an integrated socio-ecological platform. Fourth, we would apply One Model to generate two proofs of principle by projecting malaria and biodiversity loss in Africa. As climate change accelerates, we still lack the means to predict biodiversity and ecosystem changes with acceptable levels of accuracy. By integrating important mechanisms and their linkages into a single publicly available platform, we can substantially enhance our ability to mitigate future changes to global biodiversity and its services.
Working Group 22 : Using Species’ Thermal Physiological Limits To Predict Future Biodiversity Changes
Piero Calosi (Université du Québec à Rimouski), Dominique Gravel (Université de Sherbrooke),
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The rate and magnitude at which global change is occurring poses a serious threat to species persistence. However, climate driven extinctions could disproportionately affect some clades (i.e. families, genera), and given that many functional traits are similarly phylogenically structured this could result in the disproportionate loss of some ecosystem functions and services. However, species (and potential functional groups) possess different levels of phenotypic variation, phenotypic plasticity and potential for adaptation, which will likely mediate their responses to climate change. Using these elements should sensibly improve our ability to predict which clades and functional groups are going to be more sensitive to climate-driven extinctions. As a consequence the aim of this working group is to be able to integrate methods currently used to estimate phenotypic plasticity and variation of species’ traits to methods that are currently used to predict species sensitivity to extinction under climate change, and identify and a more refine manner which taxonomic and functional groups will be able to survive under global climate change scenarios. Finally, as many of the taxa in the dataset we propose to use are commercially important in the Québec region (including trout, salmon, waterfowl, oak, maple and pines), whilst this working group will be primarily focus on the sensitivity to extinction across the tree of life (i.e. Biodiversity), will also be able to identify the sensitivity to extinction for important social and economic resources including game, fish stocks and timber that are likely to requiring priority management and monitoring to maintain in the future. The intended workshop is career level, gender and discipline balanced. The workshop will result in (1) the expansion of an existing thermal limits dataset (GlobTherm) with the addition of phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic variation information, as well as information on functional groups, (2) the integration of methods currently used to estimate phenotypic plasticity and variation of species’ traits to methods that are currently used to predict species sensitivity to extinction under climate change, and (3) the preparation to 1-2 manuscripts (lead by the postdocs and the graduate students) for submission in Nature Ecology and Evolution and Nature Climate Change.
Working Group 21 : Comment le droit peut-il contribuer à un développement durable, sans perte nette de milieux humides ?
Sophie Lavallée (Université Laval), Jérôme Dupras (Université du Québec en Outaouais), Stéphanie Pellerin (Université de Montréal), Monique Poulin (Université Laval),
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Afin de minimiser les pertes de zones humides, de nombreuses juridictions ont adopté une séquence d'atténuation qui repose sur le triptyque «Éviter, minimiser et compenser», dont elles exigent le respect pour délivrer les autorisations environnementales. Cette séquence consiste à exiger des promoteurs qu'ils évitent les milieux humides pour leurs projets, réduisent au minimum les impacts négatifs de ces projets lorsqu'ils se réalisent, et en compensent les impacts négatifs résiduels (Levrel et Couvet, 2016; M. Poulin et al., 2016). En dépit des visées de cette séquence, la littérature révèle que dans nombre de juridictions, son application n'a pas permis d'atteindre l'objectif d'«aucune perte nette» de milieux humides et d'assurer la restauration des fonctions écologiques et de la biodiversité de ces milieux (Hollande et Kentula 1992; Mann et Goldman-Carter 2008; Murphy et al. 2009 a,b; Burgin 2010; Clare et al, 2011; Clare et Creed, 2014). Il existe un large consensus parmi les chercheurs, décideurs et promoteurs, selon lequel la première et la plus importante étape de la séquence d'atténuation, l'évitement, est souvent ignorée, avec peu ou pas de conséquences (Clare et al 2011, Burgin 2010; Hough et Robertson 2009;. Murphy et al 2009a). De plus, lorsque le projet a lieu en milieu humide, plusieurs études ont montré que les lois et politiques n'étaient la plupart du temps pas efficaces pour assurer le maintien des fonctions des zones humides (Spieles 2005; Cole et Shafer 2002; Malakoff 1998) et que cela était dû, soit à l'absence de règles claires pour déterminer le type de compensation nécessaire (restauration, création, conservation), soit à l'inexistence de méthodes de suivi suffisantes ou encore, à l'inexistence d'un contrôle adéquat des actions de compensation, par les agences gouvernementales. La littérature révèle que l'encadrement des systèmes de compensation, notamment des banques de compensation, est également à parfaire (Rubec et Hanson 2009). Dans bien des cas, les projets de compensation entrepris ne répondent pas aux conditions des permis obtenus (Murphy et al. 2009b), et causent des impacts sociaux involontaires indésirables en autorisant la destruction d'un milieu humide d'une région en échange d'une compensation dans une autre région, ce qui peut mener à des inégalités et des injustices environnementales (Clare et al, 2011 ; Gobert 2008 ; Bendor et al 2008; Ruhl et Salzman, 2006). Une recension des écrits révèle que la littérature juridique n'a pas fourni de réponse à la question de savoir à quelles conditions l'encadrement juridique et institutionnel de la séquence d'atténuation respectait les conditions nécessaires pour être en adéquation avec la conception forte du développement durable, qui vise l'objectif d'aucune perte nette de milieux humides. Lorsque la séquence d'atténuation a été étudiée, elle l'a été de manière plus circonscrite, soit dans le cadre d'une seule juridiction ou encore, pour mettre en évidence certaines lacunes sur un aspect en particulier de la séquence en comparant quelques juridictions (par ex. lacunes pour la phase d'évitement : Clare et Al, 2011). Or, les nombreuses interrogations que soulève l'encadrement de cette séquence d'atténuation nécessitent une étude dépassant l'approche sectorielle privilégiée par la littérature. Grâce à une analyse croisée des lois, règlementations et politiques encadrant la séquence d'atténuation dans différentes juridictions, notre projet fera avancer les connaissances en droit de l'environnement, en offrant pour la première fois un regard d'ensemble au sujet de l'encadrement juridique de cette séquence. Ces regards croisés nous aideront à dégager des questions nouvelles et inédites que les études confinées à une seule juridiction n'ont pas pu formuler à présent. La subvention de démarrage aura pour objet 1) d'une part, d'identifier les critères d'adéquation des mécanismes mettant en oeuvre la séquence d'atténuation avec l'objectif d'aucune perte nette et 2) d'autre part, de préparer une demande de subvention au CRSH pour ce projet.
Working Group 20 : Prédire l'architecture de la biodiversité
Dominique Gravel (Université de Sherbrooke), Timothée Poisot (Université de Montréal),
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L'étude de la biodiversité concerne d'abord la distribution dans l'espace et dans le temps des organismes. Mais la biodiversité est davantage qu'une liste d'espèce, il s'agit également de l'ensemble des interactions entre espèces ainsi que les processus écosystémiques qui s'en suivent. Un des défi actuel en écologie des changements globaux est d'anticiper le ré-assemblage des communautés. De nombreuses méthodes ont été proposées dans les dernières années, notamment par les membres de ce groupe de travail, pour reconstruire l'architecture de la biodiversité à partir d'information secondaire, telle que les traits fonctionnels, la phylogénie et les données de distribution. Ces approches sont nécessaires pour inférer la grande diversité d'interactions qui existe, mais surtout pour anticiper les interactions susceptibles d'émerger lors de rencontre entre organismes qui ne co-occurrent pas en ce moment. L'objectif principal de ce groupe de travail est de synthétiser ces méthodes, d'identifier leurs forces et faiblesses et de les comparer quantitativement. Nous souhaitons également développer des outils (packages) ainsi qu'un jeu de données d'étalonnage afin de faciliter leur utilisation et le développement de nouvelles méthodes. Pour ce faire, nous avons regroupé une équipe principalement constituée d'étudiants et de stagiaires postdoc qui utilisent ou développent ces méthodes. Ils seront accompagnés par quatre chercheur, avec une expérience considérable en écologie numérique, fonctionnelle et des interactions.
Working Group 19 : Groupe de travail sur les infrastructures naturelles
Jérôme Dupras (Université du Québec en Outaouais), Martin Lechowicz (McGill University), Jochen Jaeger (Concordia University), Andrew Gonzalez (McGill University), Danielle Dagenais (Université de Montréal), Alain Paquette (UQAM), Christian Messier (UQAM),
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Les changements globaux (CG) menacent de plus en plus les infrastructures naturelles de nos villes, particulièrement les arbres et la végétation associée. En effet, ceux-ci sont de plus en plus touchés par l'augmentation des stress environnementaux et des insectes et maladies exotiques. Or, ces arbres fournissent directement et indirectement, par le fonctionnement de l'écosystème terrestre urbain qui en découle, de nombreux services écologiques indispensables à notre bien-être. Ces services écologiques risquent d'être considérablement réduits face aux menaces grandissantes causées par les CG. L'hypothèse sous-jacente aux travaux du Groupe de travail sur les infrastructures naturelels est que la résistance et résilience des écosystèmes urbains et périurbains, et conséquemment les services écologiques que ceux-ci fournissent, peuvent être augmentés en favorisant une plus grande diversité structurale des écosystèmes, une plus grande diversité fonctionnelle des arbres et de la végétation associée et une connectivité plus importante des espaces verts afin de répondre aux CG et globaux prédits pour le Sud du Québec au cours des prochaines années. Nos écosystèmes urbains et périurbains, et les services qu'ils rendent, dépendent fortement des liens entre eux au niveau de l'arbre, du boisé et du paysage, et les efforts consentis en conservation et en reboisement devraient viser à consolider ou créer des liens entre ces trois différentes échelles. Ce travail d'articulation entre les différentes échelles représente à la fois le c?"ur du Groupe de travail et son aspect novateur. Les objectifs du Groupe de travail sont d'optimiser le transfert de connaissances de la recherche vers le milieu. Pour ce faire, nous développons des activités de financement de la recherche fondamentale et appliquée, de publications scientifiques et vulgarisées et de communications.
Working Group 18 : Understanding recent biodiversity change across spatial and temporal scales
Andrew Gonzalez (McGill University), Mark Vellend (Université de Sherbrooke),
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Recent global biodiversity declines present major ecological, social and economic problems. Despite substantial and compelling evidence for biodiversity loss in many places, new data syntheses suggest that local communities are resilient to species richness declines, throwing into question the seriousness, reality and implications of the modern biodiversity crisis. These recent findings have highlighted major and urgent research challenges for both basic and conservation-oriented biodiversity science. Our main objective is to resolve controversy over biodiversity trends by improving data and methods for detecting and attributing biodiversity change. We will synthesize theory about how diversity varies in space and time, and we will re-analyze existing diversity/abundance databases in light of these theoretical expectations. We will publish guidelines (in peer-reviewed journals, open access if possible) and analytical tools (e.g., R code) for detecting and attributing biodiversity change through time. We will produce a global database of >1200 local biodiversity time-series, and we will quantitatively assess biases and future data needs. We aim to determine the scale and severity of biodiversity change, to resolve recent controversy through collaborative exchange. We will constructively and productively consider not only the causes and magnitude of biodiversity change, but also its consequences for management and decision-making. This project reflects the strengths and support of a diverse research team and three biodiversity research centres. Two of Canada's premier centres, UBC's Biodiversity Research Centre and the Quebec Centre for Biodiversity Science, pledge in kind and financial support, and additional support from the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) is pending. Project participants include leaders of biodiversity change research programs, experts in biodiversity analysis, ecology and conservation. Our collaboration began at iDiv (Germany, October 2014), and we hope to bring this fast-moving and important research area back to Canada.
Working Group 17 : Adaptation versus maladaptation in response to environmental change
Andrew Hendry (McGill University), Gregor Fussmann (McGill University), Alison Derry (Université du Québec à Montréal), Rowan Barrett (McGill University),
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The global footprint of human activities is severely impacting natural environments, thus posing serious challenges to the success and persistence of wild populations. Although the consequences of environmental change have long been studied, new research is revealing that the potential outcomes are far more complex than once thought. For instance, although evolution has long been recognized to have been critically important for past changes, it was assumed to be too slow to matter on time frames of contemporary interest. Now, however, we know that evolution occurs rapidly and can strongly modify population fitness across generations. This effect appears to be particularly critical when organisms are faced by anthropogenic disturbances, such as exploitation, habitat conversion, pollution, and climate change. Despite documentation of adaptive responses in many such instances, many other examples are also known of populations failing to adapt to environmental change and going extinct as a consequence. Even more recently, several studies have shown that evolution in stressful environments can even cause populations to become maladapted, wherein their ability to persist decreases from one generation to the next. Developing our capacity to predict these different outcomes is of critical value to conservation. Our working group will first flesh out a conceptual framework and mathematical models to guide interpretation and prediction of mal-non-adaptation. Second, we will assemble and curate a freely available online database of evolutionary responses to environmental change. Finally, we will use the database to investigate patterns of mal-non-adaptation in response to environmental change. We will ask whether certain taxa are more or less likely to adapt to particular forms of environmental change. Results will be published and communicated to both scientific and public audiences.
Working Group 16 : Mise en place de la structure d'un Observatoire de la biodiversité du Québec
Dominique Gravel (Université de Sherbrooke), Timothée Poisot (Université de Montréal), Pedro Peres-Neto (Concordia University), Andrew Gonzalez (McGill University), Anne Bruneau (Université de Montréal),
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Le projet d’un Observatoire de la biodiversité du Québec est le fruit d’un consensus entre de nombreux acteurs du milieu académique, gouvernemental, industriel et non-gouvernemental. Cette volonté commune est issue de la convergence d’initiatives à diverses échelles, notamment des projets structurants proposés dans le cadre du renouvellement du financement FRQNT du CSBQ et du CEN. L’objectif principal de ce groupe de travail est de démarrer le projet d’Observatoire, de proposer une structure de gouvernance et d’assurer la pérennité financière de ses activités. Cela sera accompli au travers des objectifs spécifiques suivants: i) Entériner la mission et le domaine de l’Observatoire. ii) Proposer une structure de gouvernance. iii) Bâtir une structure de traitement des données. iv) Proposer une politique de partage des données de biodiversité. v) Établir une stratégie de financement. Nous ciblons la production de quatre documents au terme des activités du groupe de travail: un sommaire de la mission et des objectifs de l’Observatoire de la biodiversité, un plan de l’organisation, incluant la structure administrative et un budget pour sa mise en place, une politique de partage de données et la définition la structure de traitement des données. L’intégration de ces documents constituera une ébauche de demande de financement, générique, qui pourra par la suite être adaptée à des programmes spécifiques et présentée aux partenaires.
Working Group 15 : Quantifying the effects of winter water level drawdown on the aquatic biodiversity of temperate regulated lakes
Irene Gregory-Eaves (McGill University), Chris Solomon (McGill University), Christian Nozais (Université du Québec à Rimouski), Cosmin Vasile (CRECA), Guy Lessard (CRECA), René Charest (Sépaq),
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A major source of stress to aquatic biodiversity is the alteration of hydrology associated with the construction and operation of dams. Given the importance of dams on the landscape, there has been a great deal of research into the effects of hydrological modifications on river biodiversity. However, the effects of water level fluctuations on the aquatic biodiversity in regulated lakes, particularly deep (i.e. stratifying) ones, are less well understood. The studies presented in the literature to date have been fragmented, where the focus has largely been on a single population of fish or on macroinvertebrates living within a single habitat. There is a real need to synthesize the work that has been conducted to date and pair this with a comprehensive field and modeling study in order to develop a scientifically-grounded consensus on how winter water level drawdowns affect aquatic biodiversity. To tackle these needs, we have formed a working group that brings together biodiversity scientists and conservation practitioners. One of the key goals of the group is to advance our understanding of the ecological effect of winter water level drawdowns on deep regulated lakes across multiple trophic levels. Furthermore, by working collaboratively with dam operators, the group will model the effects of different management scenarios on fish.
Working Group 14 : Ecosystems Accounts for Quebec: Measuring Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Paul Thomassin (McGill University), Monique Poulin (Université Laval), Alison Munson (Université Laval), Marcel Darveau (Université Laval), Stéphanie Uhde (Institut de la statistique du Québec), Martin Joly (MDDEP), Richard Fournier (Département de géomatique appliquée, Université de Sherbrooke), Didier Babin (Secrétariat de la Convention sur la diversité biologique),
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The goal of the working group is to develop a core of researchers and students who are trained in undertaking research into the development of a set of ecosystem and biodiversity accounts for Quebec. This research includes both biophysical and economic value measurements. The ecosystem accounts would eventually become part of the larger set of environmental accounts in Quebec, held by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec (ISQ). The research questions of this Working Group are in line with axes 2 and 3 of the QCBS. The biophysical measurements that are part of the opening and closing inventories in the ecosystem accounts relate directly to Axis 2.2 and the flow of services from these ecosystems relates to Axis 2.4. The valuation component of the accounts relate directly to Axis 3 in terms of the management and adaptation of biodiversity change and specifically to Axis 3.2 in terms of biodiversity and decision making. A functional set of ecosystem accounts that includes both biophysical and monetary measurements will assist public decisions makers in their decisions concerning biodiversity, land use and sustainable development. The Working Group's pilot project is working with the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop a set of prototype ecosystem accounts for the Chaudière Appalaches administrative region. The ESA will be using earth observation (EO) over time and at different spatial resolutions to estimate an opening and closing inventory for the biophysical dimension of the ecosystem accounts. The information generated from EO will be integrated with local, regional and provincial information to provide a better estimation of changes in the ecosystems. The second component of the project will be to investigate the monetizing of the accounts. Placing a value on ecosystems provides an estimate of the value of natural capital in the region. This information can be a valuable input into regional decision making. The Working Group will continue to pursue new research opportunities in this area and will contribute to the conceptualization of ecosystem accounts. In addition the Working Group will address some of the complex measurement issues in both the biophysical and economic valuation areas.
Working Group 12 : Forecasting groundfish biodiversity change in the Newfoundland shelf
Andrew Gonzalez (McGill University), Frederic Guichard (McGill University), Pierre Pepin (DFO), Tarik Gouhier (Northeastern University), Marie-Josée Fortin (University of Toronto), Aaron Ball (McGill University),
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The goal of this working group is to quantify changes in marine biodiversity over space and time, and incorporate these biodiversity patterns as tools for forecasting changes in fish populations. The group will be working with groundfish community data collected from the Newfoundland shelf from 1980 to current, a period of time spanning a massive collapse in groundfish stocks. The objectives of this working group are: 1.Characterizing changes in spatial patterns of biodiversity over time 2.Building nonparametric models of the dominant species in this system, to determine if we can predict each species’ collapse from precollapse time series and from biodiversity patterns 3.Testing whether the regime shift is predictable by looking for changes in temporal and spatial indicator statistics, such as changes in variance
Working Group 11 : Indigenous Stewardship of Environment and Alternative Development (INSTEAD)
Colin H. Scott (McGill University), Ismael Vaccaro (McGill University), Monica Mulrennan (Concordia University), Murray Humphries (McGill University), Thora Martina Herrmann (Université de Montréal), Colin Chapman (McGill University), John Galaty (McGill University),
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Our central goals are (1) comparative investigation of indigenous peoples’ initiatives to implement their own visions of environmental and cultural heritage protection, (2) examination of how these initiatives arise from and/or lead to the protection of biodiversity, and (3) through partnered, collaborative research to bolster indigenous capacity in these initiatives. We believe that indigenous views of socio-ecological community and biodiversity protection represent a vital base of political creativity, a ‘place to stand’ that favors the reproduction of diverse approaches in human relationship to environment.
Working Group 10 : Wetland biodiversity and conservation working group
Monique Poulin (Université Laval), Stéphanie Pellerin (Université de Montréal), Claude Lavoie (Université Laval), Sophie Lavallée (Université Laval), Irene Gregory-Eaves (McGill University), Sylvie de Blois (McGill University), Marcel Darveau (Université Laval), Jacques Brisson (Université de Montréal), Jérome Theau (Université de Sherbrooke), Marie Larocque (Université du Québec à Montréal), Sylvain Jutras (Université Laval), Martin Joly (MDDEP), Richard Fournier (Département de géomatique appliquée, Université de Sherbrooke), Michel Bergeron (MDDEP),
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This working group aim to create a synergy within a network of researchers with a common interest in the development of new understanding and tools for the conservation of wetland areas. In this context, the objectives of this working group are: 1)To create a synergy of researchers with a common interest in the development of new understandings and tools for the conservation of wetland areas; 2)To promote new research opportunities to train new promising students and help them foster knowledge on wetland areas; The specific objectives and the main deliverables are: 1)To make an assessment of up-to-date data on different types of wetland biodiversity of Quebec and make this information accessible via the QBCS website; 2)To make an assessment of legislative tools used for the conservation of wetlands of Quebec followed by a critical analysis based on the expertise developed in other countries or provinces; 3)To complete a synthesis on different decision support tools developed throughout the world to promote the protection of wetlands; 4)To establish the basics of new projects that aim to develop decision support tools in favor of the conservation of wetlands that meets multi-scale biodiversity criteria.
Working Group 9 : Biodiversity and Disease Working Group
Fanie Pelletier (Université de Sherbrooke), Virginie Millien (McGill University), Dany Garant (Université de Sherbrooke), Marco Festa Bianchet (Université de Sherbrooke), Colin Chapman (McGill University), Sophie Calmé (Université de Sherbrooke), Eric Vander Wal (Université de Sherbrooke), Julien Mainguy (Ministère des Ressources Naturelles et de la Faune), Susan Kutz (University of Calgary), Daniel Fortin (Université Laval), Steeve Côté (Université Laval),
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Conserving biodiversity while managing disease in wildlife requires a comprehensive understanding the ecology and evolution of the system. Contemporary approaches to managing disease in the wild remain predominantly reactionary focusing on surveillance and some attempts at eradication. A few exceptional global studies, however, have heeded recent calls for better integration between of ecological and evolutionary concepts into studying wildlife disease. For example, they have included information about host behavior, genetics, demography, resource use, and predation risk. Yet in many instances agencies are not maximizing the information that can be gained in surveillance and attempts to eradicate diseases and lack proper understanding of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of management practices. The purpose of this working group on biodiversity and disease is to integrate ecological and evolutionary perspectives into mitigating the effects disease on biodiversity. We propose to gather experts whose research has implications for the ecology and evolution of disease in wildlife systems. We aim to create a collaboration which not only synthesizes the existing knowledge about integrating mechanistic approaches to understanding disease in wild populations, particularly ones of social and economic concern, but also provide guidance to better incorporate this knowledge with current practices for managing and eradicating disease in Québec and the rest of Canada. Due to a number of compounding factors, southern Québec is among a select global set of regions recently identified as global terrestrial disease hot spots for vertebrates.
Working Group 8 : Eco-Evolutionary Links Between and Within Species: A Community Phylogenetics Approach
Alison Derry (Université du Québec à Montréal), Mark Vellend (Université de Sherbrooke), Pedro Peres-Neto (Concordia University), Beatrix Beisner (Université du Québec à Montréal), Steven Walker (Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal), Cyrille Violle (Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier, France), Hedvig Nenzén (Université du Québec à Montréal), Steven Kembel (Département de biologie, UQAM), Steven Declerck (Netherlands Institute for Ecology, Wageningen, Netherlands), Luc De Meester (KU Leuven, Belgium), Loïc Chalmandrier (Laboratoire d'écologie Alpine, Grenoble, France), Marc Cadotte (University of Toronto Scarborough), Cécile Albert (McGill University),
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The purpose of this working group is to examine the circumstances under which it is important to quantify and account for ITV in trait based ecology by addressing the question of ITVs importance in three crucial questions for community ecology: 1. Does ITV improve our understanding of spatial distributions of species traits across landscapes? 2. Does ITV improve predictability of community responses to ecosystem disturbance? 3. Does ITV improve our ability to link patterns of biodiversity with ecosystem function?
Working Group 7 : Dynamic atlas of Quebec’s biodiversity
Luc Brouillet (Université de Montréal), Terry Wheeler (McGill University), Sylvie de Blois (McGill University), Jeffrey Cardille (McGill University), Anne Bruneau (Université de Montréal), Christian Gendreau (Canadensys, Centre sur la biodiversité, Université de Montréal), Peter Desmet (Canadensys, Centre sur la biodiversité, Université de Montréal),
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The program of this working group is designed to develop an information infrastructure that will serve researchers as they ask questions or obtain specimen data relevant to their research in a wide range of disciplines, from taxonomy to ecology. Indeed, maps and atlas data may provide the basis for the generation of ecological or biogeographical hypotheses by researchers; the creation of bioclimatic models, the evaluation or creation of protected areas, the development of species lists by MRCs, cities or any other jurisdiction requiring biodiversity data for management, education of the general public, particularly at the school level, for example by showing students that the distribution of animals and plants around them are linked to the global environment and that changing it may alter the area in which they live. The atlas will include a set of thematic maps (climate data, geological data, etc.) for visualizing specimen data from collections from the portal Canadensys. These maps will enable researchers and the public to explore biodiversity data based on environmental parameters such as climate, geology or land use. Objectives of the group: Contribute to the development of the dynamic atlas of biodiversity in Quebec, one of the main objectives of QCBS research axis 1 (discovery of biodiversity). In collaboration with Canadensys, make available on the internet specimen data from biodiversity collections in Quebec so they are useful for researchers and the general public. Determine what types of cartographic information would be most useful to represent the distribution of specimens heuristically, to enable researchers to rapidly explore hypotheses and to help the general public better understand the environmental determinants of biodiversity in Quebec. Find biophysical maps of Quebec (climate, geology, soils, vegetation, land use, parks, etc.) in an electronic format (raster or vector) with open license that would be useful for the visualization of specimen data. Adapt as needed the selected maps to WGS84 format (used by Google Maps). Determine the best technologies for combining specimen and cartographic data. Develop a prototype of the atlas of Quebec’s biodiversity with data from the biodiversity collections of the Université de Montréal and McGill University.
Working Group 6 : The drivers and management of urban biodiversity
Danielle Dagenais (Université de Montréal), Bernard Angers (Université de Montréal), Beatrix Beisner (Université du Québec à Montréal), Jacques Brisson (Université de Montréal), Jacques Brodeur (Université de Montréal), Luc Brouillet (Université de Montréal), Sylvie de Blois (McGill University), Ira Tanya Handa (Université du Québec à Montréal), Jochen Jaeger (Concordia University), Simon Joly (Université de Montréal), Lael Parrott (Université de Montréal), Stéphanie Pellerin (Université de Montréal), Fanie Pelletier (Université de Sherbrooke), Bernadette Pinel-Alloul (Université de Montréal), Sandra Breux (Université de Montréal), Alain Cogliastro (Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Université de Montréal), Gérald Domon (Université de Montréal), Pierre Drapeau (UQAM), Eric Duchemin (UQAM), Christian Messier (UQAM), Sylvain Paquette (Université de Montréal), Alain Paquette (UQAM), Philippe Poullaouec-Gonidec (Université de Montréal), Isabelle Thomas-Maret (Université de Montréal),
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The working group on urban biodiversity in Québec was formed with the ambition of setting the stage for a large research effort aiming to fill the knowledge gaps concerning the drivers of urban biodiversity in Québec and more generally. The group is also concerned with fostering management of urban biodiversity based on sound scientific research. As such, this research group is involved in the most current research questions. Objectives of the group: Provide an inventory of research on urban biodiversity in Quebec, Canada and abroad. Stimulate thinking and collaborative research on biodiversity with input from researchers from natural and applied sciences, social sciences and planning disciplines. Open new avenues of research, new collaborations and projects at all scales in an emerging field of multidisciplinary research. Initiate the development of tools for management of biodiversity in urban areas in collaboration with stakeholders. Strategically position Québec in this area of ​​research on the international scale. Make contact with important researchers and research groups through conferences / workshops for the working group and associated students. Channel social and institutional requests toward a group for an improved response as well as greater scientific and media impacts. Train a new generation of scientists in this field. Research questions: What are the environmental, biological, cultural and social drivers of urban biodiversity? Given these drivers, how should urban biodiversity be managed for the best interest of the resident populations?
Working Group 5 : Comptes d'écosystèmes pour le Québec : mesure de la biodiversité et des services écologiques
Paul Thomassin (McGill University), Jean-Pierre Revéret (Université du Québec à Montréal), Monique Poulin (Université Laval), Martin Lechowicz (McGill University), Elena Bennett (McGill University), Jean-Louis Weber (Agence européenne pour l’environnement), Stéphanie Uhde (Institut de la statistique du Québec), Benoit Limoges (MDDEP), Raynald Gagnon (MDDEP), Richard Fournier (Département de géomatique appliquée, Université de Sherbrooke), Didier Babin (Secrétariat de la Convention sur la diversité biologique),
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The goal of the working group is to create a core of researchers and students who are trained to define a research project seeking to determine the feasibility of ecosystem accounting for Québec. The ecosystem accounts would eventually become part of the larger set of environmental accounts in Quebec, held by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec (ISQ). The research questions of the project are in line with axes 2 and 3 of the QCBS: how to conceptualize the linkages between the economy and biodiversity and ecosystem services and integrate a functional biodiversity model? Then, how generate a portrait that is representative of ecosystems accounts at the scale of Québec? For example, with respect to the natural environment, what spatial scales and what elements of biodiversity should be represented in the accounting. Similarly, in terms of human activity, what sectors of activity should be considered? Moreover, in relation to theme 1.2 of Axis 1 of the QCBS, the project involves an inventory and compilation of some of the data collected by the MDDEP and elsewhere in government and in universities to determine the data available for the establishment of ecosystem accounts in Québec. The Working Group will initiate a series of reflective activities and trainings to lead to the development of at least one research project, which would take the form of a pilot project on a particular type of ecosystem, such as wetlands. The project will include a review of existing experiences in ecosystems accounting, such as in Europe and India, to assess the appropriateness of the methodologies in regard to the best available knowledge about the functioning of biodiversity in Québec, followed by concrete application of implementation of the methods in Québec as part of a case study.
Working Group 4 : Economy, society and biodiversity
Jean-Pierre Revéret (Université du Québec à Montréal), Lael Parrott (Université de Montréal), Sophie Lavallée (Université Laval), Robert Kasisi (Université de Montréal), Mohamed Hijri (Université de Montréal), Andrew Gonzalez (McGill University), Olivier Boiral (Université Laval), Marie-France Turcotte (UQAM), Emmanuel Raufflet (HEC Montréal), Luciano Barin Cruz (HEC Montréal),
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The purpose of the working group is to advance research on the integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services into the strategies of companies and organizations in Quebec. An initial state of the art to identify and characterize the various technical resources and scientific information needed to guide this reflection will be based on work done in Europe and elsewhere around the world. This working group has the following objectives: The simultaneous identification of (1) research topics in the context of developing tools and mechanisms and (2) procedures for accounting for biodiversity and ecosystem services by businesses. The development and testing of a standard for doing self-assessment of impacts and interdependencies of businesses, in order to evaluate the state and/or management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Quebec context, with participating organizations and businesses; The development or improvement of existing tools (SEIA and ACV) in order to integrate biodiversity into corporate strategies. The group will therefore answer these questions, among others: What lessons can be drawn from experiences with tools to account for biodiversity and ecosystem services? What would be the nature of an effective support structure for businesses in the domain of accounting for biodiversity and ecosystem services?/ What are the recommendations to be made so that legislators can encourage development of an environment conducive to the recognition of biodiversity and ecosystem services, as part of a strategy and action plan that will put Quebec on ​​the path of the Aichi targets?
Working Group 3 : Ecosystem Goods and Services and the Conservation of Endangered and Vulnerable Species of Québec
Philippe Le Prestre (Université Laval), Elena Bennett (McGill University), Danielle Dagenais (Université de Montréal), Sylvie de Blois (McGill University), Jaye Ellis (McGill University), Sophie Lavallée (Université Laval), Martin Lechowicz (McGill University), Michel Loreau (McGill University), Lael Parrott (Université de Montréal), Monique Poulin (Université Laval), Line Couillard (MDDEP), Benoit Limoges (MDDEP), Steve Déry (Université Laval), Philippe Meral (IRD, France), Denis Pesche (CIRAD, France),
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This working group, part of axes 2 and 3 of the QCBS, reflects on the different dimensions (research questions, assumptions, methodologies, etc.) of a research project on the relationship between the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) approach and the conservation of endangered or vulnerable species in Québec. Research questions include: How to understand the potential impact of the adoption and operationalization of an approach to biodiversity in terms of EGS, on existing and future policies regarding the protection of endangered or vulnerable in Quebec? In other words, what are the dimensions, the contradictions, synergies, potential and limitations of conservation management in the context of conceptualizing the problem in terms of EGS, and with what consequences for changes of behavior of stakeholders and for the development and implementation of effective policies?
Working Group 2 : Evolutionary Diversification and Functioning of Communities and Ecosystems
Andrew Hendry (McGill University), Beatrix Beisner (Université du Québec à Montréal), Jonathan Davies (McGill University), Claire de Mazancourt (McGill University), Dany Garant (Université de Sherbrooke), Andrew Gonzalez (McGill University), Hans Larsson (McGill University), Fanie Pelletier (Université de Sherbrooke), Eric Palkovacs (Duke University, USA), David Post (Yale University, USA),
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The recent recognition that evolutionary and ecological processes can interact on contemporary time scales presents new challenges in the search to understand connections between biodiversity, community structure, and ecosystem function. In particular, two long‐held assumptions are due for re‐evaluation. First, a traditional assumption in ecology has been that genetic relatedness is a reliable predictor of ecological function. In other words, the more distantly related are two forms (genotypes or species), the more likely their ecological function will be different. In contrast, we now know that evolutionary changes occurring over contemporary time scales, or associated with recent speciation events, can have significant impacts on communities and ecosystems. Second, a prevailing assumption in evolutionary biology has been that adaptive diversification proceeds only until the initially available niches are filled. However, this perspective ignores the potential for organisms to shape their own environments and thereby alter the available niches. Indeed, recent work suggests that ecological changes resulting from contemporary evolution have the potential to change selective environments, shape evolution, and contribute to adaptive diversification. To confront the above challenges, this QCBS working group is addressing the following questions: 1) how does evolutionary diversification shape the structure of communities and the functioning of ecosystems? 2) how do such ecological effects, in particular niche creation, influence the process of adaptive diversification?
Working Group 1 : Genetic, Phylogenetic, and Functional Diversity along Environmental Gradients
Marcia Waterway (McGill University), Anne Bruneau (Université de Montréal), Luc Brouillet (Université de Montréal), Yolande Dalpé (Agriculture et agroalimentaire Canada), Jonathan Davies (McGill University), Selvadurai Dayanandan (Concordia University), David Green (McGill University), Murray Humphries (McGill University), Simon Joly (Université de Montréal), François-Joseph Lapointe (Université de Montréal), Virginie Millien (McGill University), Stéphanie Pellerin (Université de Montréal), Pedro Peres-Neto (Concordia University), Bernadette Pinel-Alloul (Université de Montréal), Jade Savage (Bishop’s University), Marc St-Arnaud (Université de Montréal), Terry Wheeler (McGill University), Jacques Cayouette (Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada),
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This working group brings together a large team of experts to foster exchange of ideas and the sharing of expertise on methods for measuring and analyzing diversity across multiple taxa. The group is working towards developing a network of sites as a focus for future research, supporting targeted funding efforts through strategic grants, and developing collaborations with government departments and NGOs. The network of sites is viewed as a framework for sharing data collected about the physical environment and biotic composition; by coordinating individual projects the group will gradually build up a comprehensive set of data on the biodiversity of each site which would be useful for broader-scale analyses. A focus on linkages among taxa along gradients will aid in understanding biodiversity patterns which can in turn influence management decisions. In addition to informing biodiversity science and conservation policy, the working group facilitates the coordination of research effort and data sharing. A commitment to a broader project and multi-use of the data should be a strong selling point in seeking funding for individual projects.