Conflicts on biodiversity

How do stockbreeders from southern Mexico perceive wildlife predation on their livestock and what conservation tools are available to address such conflicts?



Large predators are a cause for concern and a source of various conflicts among various stakeholders regarding their conservation. Among the tools that have been developed to reduce the effects of predation on livestock, compensation programs are one means of dissuading stockbreeders from retaliating against predators by eliminating them. Evaluations of compensation programs are often controversial because, among other reasons, they consider ecological benefits or cost-benefit ratios, but rarely do they consider the view point of the stockbreeders. However, the conservation of large predators ultimately requires the cooperation of stockbreeders. We are interested in the perceptions of stockbreeders regarding the effects of predation by large predators on livestock in an area of Mexico that is home to the country’s largest jaguar population. We are investigating the social factors influencing perceptions of a compensation program that has been implemented over the last few years to improve it so that it meets both jaguar conservation needs and reduces the problems of stockbreeders who are facing livestock losses.



Sex determination in freshwater mussels


Photo credits - Figure de la DUI (Inspirée de Breton et al., 2007)
Contrary to most animals that inherit mitochondrial DNA maternally, several species of bivalves have a fundamentally different mode of transmission, known as Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI). This unique system is characterized by the presence of two distinct mitochondrial genomes: a genome M transmitted by males and found in sperm cells, and a genome F transmitted by females, present in all tissues in females, and in somatic tissues in males. In freshwater mussels, some closely related gonochoric (separate sexes) species have the DUI system, while others hermaphroditic species have lost the mitochondrial male genome. Our project will aim to determine the relationship between the DUI system and its potential role in sex determination.

Funding source: NSERC


Sophie Breton, Charlotte Capt

Added by: Sébastien Renaut


Training on invasive plants



Continuing education training on invasive plant species recognized by Laval University (continuing education unit) and targeted to environmental managers and consultants. This training allows participants to recognize invasive species and the most recent technical advances in order to curb an invasion. Click here for more info.



Games Institutions Play

Addressing the challenges of socio-ecological systems' multi-level governance


Photo credits - Conceptual diagram depicting inter-institutional pitfall framework presents the “inter-institutional pitfall framework”, which highlights four possible interactional gaps that could occur between formal and informal institutional regimes.
For this project, supported by a QCBS seed grant, a group of student members (from the Gordon Hickey, Murray Humphries and Ismael Vaccaro labs) developed a conceptual framework to better highlight the problem of inter-institutional gaps between informal and formal institutions. The framework was applied to four international case studies. They found that understanding the complex interactions between institutions can provide substantial knowledge for practitioners and policy-makers seeking more effective frameworks to support sustainable resource management. The article will soon be submitted to the journal Ecology and Society. Authors: H. M. Tuihedur Rahman, Arlette Saint Ville, Andrew M. Song, June Y. T. Po, Elsa Berthet, Jeremy Brammer, Nicolas D. Brunet, Lingaraj Jayaprakash, Kristen Lowitt, Archi Rastogi, Graeme Reed, Gordon M. Hickey.



Batwatch!

Help save the bats!



New initiatives have been implemented to allow canadian research to face the threat of the white-nose syndrome that is decimating bat populations all over Canada, the United States and Europe. The problem is such as 90 to 100% of those touched by this microscopic fungus have died in the last few years. Thus, a new partnership between the MFFP, the QCBS and the University of Winnipeg has permitted the elaboration of a program that encourages the participation of civilians. They are given the duty of reporting the presence of abnormal behaviors or of dead bats. This will provide more data for researchers to monitor and help prevent the eradication of bat colonies. For more information or to participate, please visit: Chauve souris aux abris Click here for more info.

Funding source: the MFFP, the QCBS and the University of Winnipeg


Anouk Simard, Murray Humphries

Added by: Guillaume Larocque


Sugar maple and climate change

When the sugar maple climbs up mountains...


Photo credits - Morgane Urli
Tree species distributions are shifting due to climate change. Various environmental factors can explain these distribution shifts, but their relationship to climate change is not well understood yet. To better understand such relationships, Morgane Urli, a postdoctoral fellow in Mark Vellend's lab, is leading a project at Mont-Mégantic focusing on a tree species of economic interest in southern Quebec: the sugar maple. This project aims to determine the factors controlling sugar maple regeneration along an altitudinal gradient including the boreal-temperate forest ecotone. The abundance of mature trees decreases with elevation up to the tree line, but they observed that seedling density is greater at high elevation than at low elevation. Climate change might make habitats more favourable to seedlings than they were previously. However, it is surprising to observe weaker seedling regeneration at lower elevation right in the center of the sugar maple distribution area. Two principal hypotheses to explain such observations are a greater herbivory pressure from insects at lower elevation and a varying water availability for seedlings along the altitudinal gradient. A transplant experiment is currently underway to test these hypotheses. More information on this experiment is available at chercheurjourapresjour.blogspot.ca. Click here for more info.



Birds at home!

Citizen science project in the Rimouski region


Photo credits - Pierre Legagneux
The project "Des nids chez vous" aims to get elementary school kids involved in the observation and monitoring of breeding birds in the Rimouski region. This project is conducted simultaneously in five "Green Brundtland Schools" and in various parcs in the region. The objective of the project is to increase the awareness of citizens to the protection of biodiversity, which is greatly threatened by global change and human activities. This project gets kids, professors and families involved in the observation and monitoring of many common bird species. School kids and their families will be able to follow the activity of birds in nest boxes in their backyard, in schools or in urban parks. Nest boxes (300 in 2014), constructed by la Polyflore de l'École Paul-Hubert, are supplied free of charge. The project as a whole revolves around the collaboration of scientists, parents and kids.

http://www.desnidschezvous.com Click here for more info.

Funding source: QCBS seed grant and collaborating organizations


Dominique Berteaux, François Vézina



Inuit traditional activities and climate change

How climate change is impacting Inuit life



Climate change is affecting Inuit communities and their territory is under rapid changes. Our project is focusing on Inuit perception using interviews with maps to uncover where the land has been modify during the last decade. We see a student (Laura Siegwart Collier) mapping changes in berry patches, fishing and hunting activities with an interpreter (Wilson Jararuse) and an Elder (Verona Ittulak). Click here for more info.



Ecological determinants of potential spread of variant raccoon rabies


Photo credits - A. Martin
The overall objective of this research project is to assess the potential spread of raccoon rabies in eastern Canada, through a multidisciplinary approach integrating spatial ecology, landscape genetics, behavioral ecology and population dynamics. To investigate the potential spread of rabies in eastern Canada, we monitor wild populations of raccoons and skunks. We chose these species because they are the two main drivers of the raccoon rabies variant in the United States and Canada. Although raccoons and skunks are very common, there is very little information available on habitat use by these species that would be applicable to the landscapes of Eastern Canada (ie intensive farming and agro-forest landscapes). The acquisition of knowledge on the demographic and behavioral dynamics of wild animals considered a reservoir of rabies is essential to prevent a new outbreak of the disease in Quebec. Click here for more info.

Funding source: FRQNT


Fanie Pelletier